Cooks River hides a little secret

Cooks River is considered to be one of the most polluted urban river systems in NSW. Leaf litter, drink cans, plastics bags, oil runoff are common sights for the locals. When it rains, the situation gets worse as the rubbish snags on the low hanging branches of the casuarina trees and the roots of the mangroves that grow along the banks. The visual pollution and the associated smell can make walking and running along Cooks River an unpleasant experience.

However, despite the pollution, Cooks River hides a little secret. One even some of the locals are not aware of.

To find it, you need to start at Canterbury train station. From there, make your way south across the bridge until you reach the first set of traffic lights. From there, you need to cross to St Mary McKillop Reserve. Then make your way past the tall trees and very slowly, past the gang of noisy sulfur-crested cockatoos. Past the sails of the children’s playground, the rocking horse and the jungle-gym.

You are almost there. Just a little further.

At the end of the little path, past the tall trees lies the secret. A little green oasis known as Cup and Saucer Creek. It was developed as part of Sydney Water’s ‘bank-naturalisation’ project. Bank-naturalisation aims to replace concrete channels, pavements, storm-water drains and lawns with native trees and plants. The construction of Cup and Saucer Creek began in 2010 and took about three months to complete. Twelve months after the project began, it was handed over to Canterbury Council.

Over the past few years, the 27,000 native plants and 40 species of plants introduced around Cup and Saucer Creek have created a vibrant habitat. It is now home to a number of native birds, amphibians, reptiles, fish and insects. In 2014, the Council and the volunteers (Marrickville Mudcrabs) who look after the area installed a native beehive to support the plants in the area. From the Creek, sandstones, rocks and native plants have been used to continue the naturalisation process and link the wetland to Cooks River.

Sights around Cup and Saucer Creek. The stumps make ideal spots for the birds. Sadly, rubbish gets in the wetland from time to time. Image credit, Madeline Rhodes.

The oasis comes complete with its own educational space and interpretive signs about indigenous history. These solidifies the Creek as an important, local greenspace. Adjacent to Cup and Saucer Creek are sandstone seats, ideal for those who want to sit and enjoy a snack as they journey along the banks of Cooks River.

Looking at Cooks River from Cup and Saucer Creek. The new bank naturalisation project has connected the Creek to the River. The sandstones add a great touch and add to the stability of the banks. Image credit, Madeline Rhodes

But Cup and Saucer Creek hides its very own little secrets. Not only does it provide a refuge for local wildlife, it performs another critical function. The Creek was specifically designed to reduce the amount of sediments and pollutants entering Cooks River. This is achieved through a clever way. The Creek is made up of four ponds of varying depths and sizes.

The first pond is the deepest as it receives the bulk of the incoming stormwater. The deep design helps slows the rate at which the stormwater enters the wetland. By slowing the stormwater, the sediments and pollutants begin to settle to the bottom of the pond. The aquatic plants and reeds, together with the algae and bacteria that grow in the ponds helps to break down the sediments and pollutants. By the time the water reaches the fourth pond, it is much cleaner.

One of the four ponds that make up the Creek. It helps slow down the stormwater that flows into it and the aquatic plants and reeds help filter the pollutants. Image credit, Madeline Rhodes.

From pond four, the water flows into Cooks River. The natural filtering and cleaning process is so effective, that Sydney Water estimates that 5 tonnes of sediment, 40kg of phosphorus and 130kg of nitrogen are diverted from Cooks River by Cup and Saucer Creek alone.

The Creek is a great example of the positive impacts that bank-naturalisation programs can have on local water catchments. A once grassy lawn that has been transformed into a thriving and vibrant ecosystem. More projects like Cup and Saucer Creek are needed along the banks of the Cooks River. Ultimately, they need to be connected to form a green corridor. One that not only cleans and filters the water but also provide a habitat for the local wildlife. Doing so will go a long way to help the Inner West Council achieve its goal of making parts of the Cooks River swimmable.

Until then, Cup and Saucer Creek will be one of Cooks River’s best kept secrets. One that many of the locals do not know about. And the ones that do, want to keep it a secret. At least a little longer. 


Corroboree Frogs – the rarest of them all

With distinct yellow and black markings, the Corroboree frog (Pseudophryne corroboree) is one of the most iconic, frog species in Australia. They occur as two species (the Northern Corroboree Frog and the Southern Corroboree Frog) and are only found in Australia’s alpine region – around Mt Kosciuszko National Park. When fully grown, the Corroboree frogs are about 3cm in length and have a lifespan of between 8 – 10 years. Unlike most other species of frogs, the Corroboree frogs walk and are thought to be the only species to produce their own toxins. This means that these little frogs do not have any natural predators.

Corroboree frog walking on moss. Image reproduced from Jean-Paul Farrero.

The Corroboree frog also has the distinction of being one of the rarest frogs in the world. At one point, its population in the wild was thought to be less than a hundred. In 2013, no breeding was recorded by conservationists. Concern for their survival has led to the Corroboree frogs being listed as ‘critically endangered’ by the IUCN and under the EPBC Act (1999). The frogs are also listed as ‘endangered’ under the NSW Threatened Species Act (1995) and the ACT Nature Conservation Act (2014).

The survival of Corroboree frogs in the wild is undermined by a number of interrelated factors. The first is the natural breeding cycle. It takes the frogs between 3 – 4 years to reach sexual maturity. Mating occurs over the summer months when the females lay about 40 eggs in the alpine bogs and ponds. By frog standards, 40 eggs is considered a very small clutch size. Once the eggs are laid, they develop into tadpoles but do not hatch until the rainy autumn months.

Alpine habitat at Mount Kosciuszko National Park where the Corroboree frogs live. Image reproduced from Jean-Paul Ferrero.

The reliance on the rainy season makes the frogs vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. The altered rainfall patterns will interfere with the hatching of Corroboree tadpoles, making it harder to maintain a healthy, functioning population. Further, the warmer, hotter global temperatures means that alpine areas will continue to shrink, restricting the frog’s habitat range.

Chytrid – the invisible killer

Breeding and climate change aside, Corroboree frogs are threatened by something more sinister and insidious. An invisible predator that has slowly spread itself across Europe, Africa, America and Asia, and decimated many species of frogs. Not much is known about the origins of the chytrid fungus (Bactrochochytrium dendobatidis). There is consensus that globalisation has made the spread of the fungus from one country to another easier. Once introduced into an uninfected environment, the chytrid spreads in one of two ways. Firstly, through direct contact between infected individuals. Secondly, the fungal spores themselves spread through water.

The fungus attaches itself to keratin, the protein component of skin and interferes with osmosis – the frog’s ability to breathe through its skin. Since it first emerged in 1993, the fungus has gone onto infect ten species of Australian frogs. While some species such as the Corroboree frog titter on the brink, others have succumb to the chytrid fungus. The current extinction list includes; the Southern and Northern Gastric-brooding frog, the Sharp-snouted day frog and the Southern day frog.

There are also some species such as the Common Eastern Froglet (Crinia signifiera) and the Alpine Tree Frog (Litoria verreauxii alpina) which are thought to act as reservoirs for the chytrid fungus. The reservoirs provide a safe hiding space for the chytrid, while also helping transport the fungus to new locations.  

Both reservoir species, have habitat ranges that overlap with the Corroboree frogs. This means that preventing the contamination of healthy populations and containing the spread of the chytrid difficult. The eradication of the fungus from the environment is made difficult by its affinity to cold, wet environments. This makes the alpine region of Mt Kosciuszko National Park a stronghold for the invisible killers and the Corroboree frogs easy targets.

Conservation response – the silver lining

Even though the plight of the Corroboree frog seems dire, there are some reasons for optimism. Firstly, the chytrid’s strength – its ability to bind to the protein keratin also happens to be a weakness. This is because during their egg and tadpole stage, frogs lack keratin. In other words, they are infection free.

Corroboree frogs eggs. Image reproduced from Lydia Fucsko (2011).

Over the past decade, a dedicated, captive breeding program between Taronga Zoo, Melbourne Zoo, Healesville Sanctuary, Tidbinbilla Nature Reserve and the Amphibian Research Centre has been capitalising on this.

Infection free enclosure. Image credit: McFadden (2014)
Infection free enclosure where Corroboree frogs are kept in the wild. Image credit: McFadden (2014)

The primary aim of the program is to create an infection free, insurance population. At Taronga Zoo, the carefully regulated room used for keeping and breeding the Corroboree frogs also serves as an exhibition and education space. Thus far, the program appears to be successful. The eggs and tadpoles collected from the captive frogs are being introduced into the wild. To enhance their survival, they are released in remote, alpine areas that are infection free. These efforts have seen numbers slowly climb from a few hundred to about two thousand. Having an insurance population also gives conservationists hope. A hope that it buys valuable research time in which some sort of solution(s) to completely halting or eradicating the chytrid fungus at the molecular level.

The Corroboree frog, with its distinct yellow and black markings is an iconic Australian species. One that has been pushed to the brink of extinction by a silent killer that has slowly spread across the globe. Some species of frogs have been entirely decimated, while others are slowly being lost. A few years ago, the Corroboree frogs were thought to be one of the rarest of species in the world. However, a dedicated and long-term captive breeding program in Australia has helped to create an insurance population of Corroboree frogs that are infection free. Its success is helping boost numbers in the wild as well as buying valuable time so that a solution to the fungus can be found.


Tips on creating a habitat garden

These days it seems like everyone is into gardening. Being outdoors, getting your hands dirty and growing your own food is an easy way for us to reconnect with nature. The associated health and wellbeing benefits of gardening have also been widely recognised and promoted. This desire to live off the land is reflected in the popularity of programs such as Gardening Australia and the Gourmet Farmer as well as nature-care campaigns like National Tree Day and the Winter BeardsOn Challenge.

Many of us are now turning our front yards, backyards, verge spaces, community lots and even balconies into herbs, vegetables and fruit gardens. Growing our own produce helps us save money (particularly for those living in expensive Sydney) and reduce our environmental footprint. However, I think that it is a missed opportunity to have a garden that is exclusively used for the production of fruits and vegetables. I believe that with some simple tips such as those outlined below, you can transform your garden into a thriving habitat (depending on how much space is available). One that will boost the productivity of your garden, as well as provide a refuge for native wildlife.

Flowering native plants:

The simplest and most effective way to transform your garden into a lively habitat is by plantings. The best place to get information about ideal natives for your local area would be your council, local nurseries or landcare groups. When planting natives, it is important that they flower throughout the year and that the different plants grow to different heights. Species such as grevilleas, callistemon and leptospermum and native grasses are excellent choices. Plant them next to common garden herbs such as lavender, mint, basil, sage and rosemary. These herbs also flower throughout the year and are good at attracting bees to the garden.

Native garden next to driveway, Milton NSW. Image credit; Hasmukh Chand
Native garden next to driveway, Milton NSW. Image credit; Hasmukh Chand


Beehives have been a very popular addition to gardens, particularly in urban environments. They are small enough to be placed on rooftops, balconies and backyards. For serious hobbyists and gardeners, they can be a timely and often expensive pursuit. However, the honey that bees will produce can be a worthwhile reward. The pollination service that bees provide will increase the productivity of your vegetables and fruits. Because bees can forage large distances, having them in your garden will help other gardens in your area.

Many of us though may not be ready for such an investment or for fear of allergies and unaccepting neighbours. If you do decide that a beehive is something you want in your garden, then locate it in a sunny corner away from the public. It is also incredibly important to check with your local council to see if there are any regulatory requirements for having a beehive on your property and whether it needs to be registered with the State Government. If you cannot afford a beehive, simply drill some holes in your habitat logs which will be ideal for native Australian bees (many of which are solitary and stingless).

Habitat logs:

A thriving habitat garden attracts all sorts of beneficial insects, invertebrates and small mammals. By leaving a habitat log in a sunny corner, you will provide them with a place to sleep, hide, hunt and warm themselves in the sun. Depending on the amount of space available, you can leave logs all over your garden, including under shrubs and foliage. Habitat logs are incredibly important in Australia as many native bee species live in burrows in logs, tree stumps and bark. If there is no room for a habitat log, then mulch can be a great alternative as it will provide a place for bugs, insects and slugs. By adding mulch, you will also help suppress weeds and retain moisture in your garden.

Log in the garden. Holes and rotting bark provide ideal spaces for small insects. Image credit; Hasmukh Chand
Log in the garden. Holes and rotting bark provide ideal spaces for small insects. Image credit; Hasmukh Chand

Habitat rocks:

Habitat rocks perform a similar role to habitat logs. Leave a few rocks around in your garden to get maximum benefits. Larger rocks in sunny areas will provide the ideal spot for any lizards or other reptiles in your garden to warm themselves in the sun.

Watering holes:

Insects, invertebrates, birds and mammals in your garden will need somewhere to drink water. You can use any small, shallow container such as an old plate which is capable of holding water. A partially submerged flat rock or some floating wine corks can also be added to provide somewhere for the insects to land. It is important to keep an eye on the insect watering hole to prevent mosquitoes from using it to lay eggs and for keeping the water filled.

Nest boxes:

Nest boxes are a great way to provide refuge to some of the larger birds and mammals that might be found in your local area. Often, multiple animals might use the same nest box throughout the year. For nest boxes to be effective, they need to be located high up in the tree canopy. As such, it is often best to approach your local council or professionals in your area to have your nest box installed. Nest boxes can either be purchased and there are multiple designs that are suitable for certain birds and mammals. Alternatively, you can build your own nest box by finding tips and instructions online.

Native garden at a private property in Milton NSW. Image credit; Hasmukh Chand
Native garden at a private property in Milton NSW. Image credit; Hasmukh Chand

More green time, less screen time

Planet Ark’s National Tree Day event is considered to be one of the largest, nature-care event in Australia. For over 20 years, the organisation has helped Australians plant more than 20 million trees. The biggest supporters of National Tree Day have been thousands of schools and their students, taking the opportunity to beautify their school grounds and spend a bit of their time outdoors. With an emphasis on local natives, National Tree Day has made a significant contribution to providing habitat for native birds, insects and mammals as well as help absorb and lock away carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

But it is not just the environment that has benefitted from this 20 year, nation-wide program. Some of the greatest benefits of National Tree Day have been to the people who have participated in the event. More specifically, the simple act of planting trees has helped redefine our relationship with each other as well as with nature. This is incredibly important, given how hyper-connected and technology dominated our lives have become. Over the past five years, Planet Ark has been researching the impacts technology and reduced nature time is having on society.

Some of the key findings include;

  • 1 in 10 children play outside once a week or less
  • 1 in 4 children have never climbed a tree
  • For every hour we spend outdoors, we spend seven indoors watching tv or surfing the internet
  • 51% of Australians feel stressed, depressed and isolated after visiting social media sites

How much time do we need to spend in nature to get the benefits? In the latest research, Planet Ark is prescribing a minimum daily dose of 10 minutes outside. Even 10 minutes a day has been found to be enough to make us ‘happier, healthier, calmer and smarter’, leading to a more fulfilling life. The most profound benefits of nature-contact have been observed among students and children.

Some of the key findings of the latest research include;

  • People living in green areas are 40% less likely to be overweight or obese
  • 77% of teachers have reported that students perform better in standardised tests when outdoor learning is part of the school curriculum
  • People who work in offices with indoor plants are 17% more productive and come up with more ideas

Many other organisations are now recognising the benefits of nature time to those identified and championed by Planet Ark for 20 years. In Canada, the David Suzuki Foundation is promoting the 30 x 30 Challenge, providing thirty creative ideas for doing something nature related everyday for a month. The National Geographic recently published an article examining the positive impacts nature has on our brains. In the UK, The Wild Network is promoting nature play and learning for children. And this movement to encourage people to have more ‘green time’ and less ‘screen time’ is increasingly supported by medical and academic studies.

One of the greatest things about this ‘nature prescription’ is that it very easy and fun (and cheap). So next time you are feeling a little tired, or feel like you cannot concentrate or stuck on an idea, maybe it is time to head outside. Better yet, take the family and friends and enjoy some quality green time. You never know what you might end up finding in the trees.

Hanami: A celebration of Nature


Hanami, or flower viewing, is an annual Japanese tradition dating back many centuries. It signifies the arrival of spring, when the landscape becomes ornamented by delicate bursts of pink, white and red cherry blossom flowers. The event is eagerly anticipated by locals (and tourists), who decorate their surroundings in splashes of pink and red. The excitement is such that even the daily weather reports on television feature segments about when and where the first cherry blossom blooms will occur.

This year, I was lucky enough to be in Japan during the peak of the cherry blossom season. During my first weekend in Japan, I made my way to Ueno Park, a popular destination for hanami. The park has been a dedicated public green-space since the 1870s and it’s sheer size is impressive, particularly for a highly concentrated metropolis like Tokyo. Despite its size, Ueno was very busy. I saw many people sitting under the pink cherry blossom canopies, enjoying food, drinks, music and games. Market stalls, buskers, and street food vendors all add to the atmosphere.

People were so caught up in the hanami that they did not seem to mind us tourists weaving our way through the mosaic of picnic blankets. The beauty of the cherry blossoms and the celebrations had me mesmerised as well. I forgot the fact that there were a number of shrines, two museums and a zoo at Ueno Park. At night, the fairy lights and paper lanterns that ornament the cherry blossoms make them more magical. The cherry blossoms captivated me even as they wilted and rained down like pink snow and littered the ground.

I must admit, I was a little envious that the Japanese people and their hanami. Seeing the delicate pink and red cherry blossom flowers stop an industrious nation made me wonder what type of impact a similar celebration will have in Australia. A celebration which transcends the occasional bushwalk or trip to the beach. One where the entire nation stops and collectively enjoys being outdoors, reconnecting with nature and their family and friends. Many organisations in Australia are actively seeking ways to encourage people to spend time outdoors. The health, wellbeing and economic benefits of reconnecting with nature are well documented.  Maybe it is time for us to come up with our own hanami.

Disposing common household electronic items

The ubiquity of electronic gadgets worldwide has made life increasingly easy. They have also created significant challenges, particularly, when it comes to the proper disposal of electronic waste once they reach the end of their life cycle. The United Nations estimates that in 2015, 75 million tonnes of electronic waste was discarded globally, with Australia being one of the worst global offenders. Nationally, it is estimated that 20 kilograms of electronic waste is generated per capita in Australia.

While some of us organise council pick-ups and try and be much more considerate in how we dispose of electronics, many of us think that leaving them on the side of the street is the norm. Walk down any street on any given day and you will just how prevalent this practice is. This is a serious cause for concern as televisions, computers, laptops, phones and batteries are made up of heavy metals (lead, mercury, cadmium, iron, zinc, arsenic and bromine) and persistent plastics. These materials are incredibly toxic in the environment and are classed as carcinogens.

In an effort to reduce the environmental footprint of discarded electronics and implement more sustainability into their life cycle, a number of recycling schemes have been established in Australia. Despite this though, we are still not aware of where some of the most common electronic items can be taken for environmentally conscious disposal.

I have decided to do some preliminary research and put together a list of places where some of the most common electronic items can be taken for recycling. Many of these places are common in local suburbs so best check which works for you. 


Where: Office Works and Australia Post

Comment: This is a free service provided by both in partnership with Planet Ark.

Ink Cartridges

Where: Office Works and Australia Post

Comment: This is a free service provided by both in partnership with Planet Ark.

Mobile Phones (ensure that all personal information is deleted from the phone)

Where: The Salvation Army, The St Vincent de Paul Society, Australia Post, Office Works, Council pick-up day and Marrickville Pay it Forward

Comment: You can donate your old phone to places like the Salvation Army and Vinnies. Please ensure that the phone and the accessories are in good working condition. In December, Mobile Muster donates $2 to the Salvation Army for every 1kg of mobile phones and accessories collected. Both Office Works and Australia Post provide free Mobile Muster service.

Computers/laptops/tablets (ensure that all personal information is deleted from the phone)

Where: The Salvation Army, The St Vincent de Paul, Bower Repair and Re-use Centre, Office Works, Council pick-up day and Marrickville Pay it Forward

Comment: You can donate your old computers/laptops/tablet to places like the Salvation Army and Vinnies. Please ensure that all accessories are included and in working good working condition. The Bower Repair Centre might be able to repair your computer/laptop/tablet but you need to call and check with them first.

Television sets

Where: The Salvation Army, The St Vincent de Paul, Bower Repair and Re-use Centre, Office Works, Council pick-up day and Marrickville Pay it Forward


Where: Aldi, Ikea, Council pick-up day and Battery World

Comment: Aldi and Ikea do not accept vehicle batteries. Council pick up and Battery World accept all types of batteries, inducing ones from vehicles.

Calendar of green events

Australia has some of the most unique natural landscapes around the world, populated by equally unique and iconic flora and fauna. Over the years, a number of days have been set aside to celebrate these natural wonders. The days are also an important reminder of how fragile these ecosystems and habitats are and our responsibility as stewards to protect and conserve them.

I have put together some of the key dates in the national calendar of green events to make it easier for people to plan and participate in their own events. The list below is not exhaustive and I will add to it as more events and dates arise.

1st of March Business Clean Up Day Part of the Clean Up Australia Day campaign. Business Clean Up Day encourages businesses to register and help clean up the environment. Businesses need to pay a $150 in registration fees, with the funds going towards supporting the organisation and its volunteers. Once registration is complete, a cleaning kit is sent to the team leader containing bags and gloves to make the process easier.
6th of March Clean Up Australia Day Part of the Clean Up Australia Day campaign where members of the public get involved in cleaning up their local public spaces. Those interesting in participating are encouraged to register a clean up site online and then gather volunteers to assist in the cleaning up of that site. Once registration is complete, a cleaning kit is sent to the team leader containing bags and gloves to make the process easier.
19th of March Earth Hour Supported by WWF, Earth Hour seeks to generate public awareness about the impacts of climate change. The event encourages participants to switch off all non-essential electricity in their homes and businesses for one hour. This act is simple, yet, effective mechanism to reduce carbon footrpint. The event has evolved into an education campaign about the effects of climate change on food security, protecting natural habitats and has gained an international participation.
29th of July Schools Tree Day Part of Planet Ark’s campaign to encourage environmental stewardship in kindergarten, primary and high schools across Australia. Planet Ark provides a range of tool kits and educational resources. Given that many schools are now located in urban areas, the campaign has broadened to including urban sustainability programs such as vertical gardens.
31st of July National Tree Day Part of Planet Ark’s national campaign to encourage native tree planting in public spaces across Australia. Nearly 4 million Australians have taken part since 1996 and over 20 million trees have been planted.
13th – 21st of August National Science Week Annual celebration of science and technology, with over hundereds of events take place in various locations across the nation. The week is supported by the Australian Government, Commonwealth Science Industry and Research Organisation, Australian Broadcasting Corporation and the Australian Science Teachers Association.
22nd – 28th of August Keep Australia Beautiful Week This is an annual, week-long event that encourages people to keep the beautiful, natural environment clean. The campaign has broadened in scope and scale to include initiatives such as tidy towns and even sustainable cities.
1st of September National Wattle Day An annual event to celebrate one of the most iconic and versatile native plants in Australia. The organisers encourage people to plant wattles in public spaces.
All of September National Biodiversity Month The entire month of September is dedicated to conserving, protecting and improving biodiversity in Australia. A number of events such as backyard bio-blitz and robust scientific research are promoted during this month.
All of September Save the Koalas The entire month dedicated to one of the most popular and iconic Australian natives. The Australian Koala Foundation seeks to educate the public about the plight of koalas. The organisation encourages people to plant native trees (gumtrees), protect koala habitats and donate to support koala conservation and scientific research.
5th – 11th of September National Landcare Week An entire week dedicated for Landcare Australia. Various events happen during the week including native tree planting in public spaces with the support of Landcare.
7th of September National Threatened Species Day This day is a commemoration of the death of the last remaining Tasmanian Tiger. This is a national day to educate and raise the profile of threatened Australian native flora and fauna. National Threatened Species Day is a great opportunity to learn and connect with local flora and fauna species.
11th – 17th of September Cool Australia Enviro Week An entire week dedicated to connecting school children with the wonders of nature. Schools can register and students participate in activities such as creating an edible garden, vertical gardens, planting native flora, to recycling and cleaning litter.
11th of September Sustainable House Day This day encourages people to visit some of the best sustainable/eco homes across Australia. The day is an opportunity to learn and share ideas about eco-friendly homes and life-styles across Australia.
11th of September National Bilby Day This day aims to raise awareness about the plight of bilbies across Australia. The public can fundraise to support conservation and research efforts focussed on saving bilbies.
17th – 23rd of October Aussie Backyard Bird Count An entire week that seeks to encourage members of the public to participate in bird counting surveys in their backyard. The citizen science data collection is made easier by the availability of an app for smart phones. Many local councils support the Aussie Backyard Bird Count.
7th – 13th of November National Recycling Week Part of Planet Ark’s campaign. The goal of the week is to encourage recycling and educating the public about the environmental benefits of waste reduction.

22nd of April: World Earth Day

This is one of the longest running environmental event, which began in 1970 to direct attention to the environmental degradation happening all around the world. Today, the focus of World Earth Day remains the same, but the movement has gained a global following.

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